Paint is a liquid that we use on our homes and on our furniture to keep them looking new and fresh all of the time. Paint helps to protect and prolong the lifespan of these high value assets like protective coatings used in oil installations, and it is also a primary choice that we turn to when we want to change the look of any facility. We can choose colors and shades without making any permanent changes because it’s such a versatile option. The more often you paint, the brighter and more attractive the home or facility. We have collated the chemicals used in paint production in this article.
Can You Make Your Paint? While not as common as it used to be, some people still like to make their paint right from their home chemistry lab. With all of the chemicals that you’ll need and the time involved in the process, more often than not, this isn’t worth it.
Types of Chemicals used in Paint Production
You may not know this, but all paints are made of solid and liquid components. Paints production formulate guided formulation as the company’s chemical formulator proposes them. Therefore, various chemicals differ in the process based on their usage. Here are some of the chemicals involved in the paint production-making process. They are broken down into four categories.
Binders in paints
Binder (resin) – Resins hold the pigment particles together. Due to the inherent properties of resins, they provide paints’ adhesion or binding properties. Modern paints’ three most essential binders (resins) include acrylic, alkyd, and epoxy polymers; these chemicals act as resins based on various formulations. The binder is primarily classified as either 100% acrylic or vinyl acrylic (PVA or polyvinyl acetate) in latex paints. It forms a matrix to hold the pigment of paint in place. Binder is the main ingredient of paints production, creating a continuous film on the substrate surface. It is responsible for the excellent adhesion of the coating to the substrate.
1. Acrylic polymers
The binder in many emulsion paints has homopolymers or copolymers of ethenyl ethanoate (vinyl acetate) and a propenoate (acrylic) ester base. Moreover, Ethenyl ethanoate develops by passing a mixture of ethanoic acid vapor, ethane, and Oxygen overheated palladium(ll) and copper(ll) chlorides.
Ethenyl ethanoate and an acrylic ester (methyl 2-methyl propanoate) were then copolymerized to form a random array. However, other acrylic esters in co-monomers with ethenyl ethanoate are ethyl propenoate, butyl propenoates, or a copolymer of butyl propenoate and methyl 2-methyl propanoate.
2. Alkyd polymers
chemicals used in paint production include decorative gloss paints typically contain this chemical substance which develops from polyols such as propane-1,2,3-triol (glycerol) with a dibasic acid such as benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic (phthalic) anhydride and a drying oil (linseed or soybean oil). Alkyd is derived from a combination of alcohol and anhydride. Once the application of alkyd resin, the pendant oil drying groups react with Oxygen in the air to form a cross-linked. Therefore, hard thermoset coating develops with a high molecular mass.
3. Epoxy polymers
Epoxy resins are a common binder in the coating industry. It gives the paint excellent adhesion together with high resistance to chemicals. Moreover, it prevents corrosion and physical resistance necessary, for example, on ships and chemical storage tanks. The epoxy polymers are made from 1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane and substituted phenols, such as bisphenol-A.
Substance in paint production in the form of solvents such as aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, and esters (solvent-borne paints) or as dispersions in water (water-borne paints) as true emulsions. In addition, they are not typically used in topcoats outdoors because they are susceptible to UV degradation; however, they make excellent interior coatings and exterior primers.
4. Latex (PVA) Liquid or solvents
Solvents are the pigments and binder carriers. Water is the liquid in the case of latex paint and mineral spirits in oil-based paint. Vinyl polymer substances with free radical vinyl polymerization of the monomer vinyl acetate create latex. This binder in the paint production process goes exceptionally well with other chemicals.
5. Phenolic resins
Thermosetting polymers form after applying simple phenol with aldehydes (e.g. formaldehyde). Resins have a tremendous binding effect. They find use in making epoxy marine paints for marine facility applications..
6. Chlorinated rubber
This chemical goes through the polymerization process of the degraded natural rubber. This condition happens in the presence of atoms of chlorine participating in the cross-linking process. Aside from paint production other Use of Chlorine in Paper Making process. That’s the list of chemicals used in paint production.
Solvents for paint-making
A solvent is a medium where the binder, pigment, and additives combine in molecular form or as colloidal dispersions. In addition, It is also a great element to modify paint viscosity requirements for the application methods such as brush, roller, dip, spray. These chemicals are among the many solvents in paint production.
- Xylene. This substance is a pure aromatic solvent. It has a benzene ring structure in its molecules.
- Toluene. There is no question of what is Toluene used for in real life. Explosive, solvents, fuels, agriculture sector to a part of the coca-cola ingredient. It is another pure aromatic solvent with a benzene ring structure.
- Alcohols (n-butanol, isopropanol) are organic chemicals compounds that have a hydroxyl group bound to the carbon atoms of an alkyl group.
- Ketones. Is an organic solvents compound. In addition, it exists in the carbonyl group (C=O) that bound by atoms.
Additives — Provides additional property enhancements.
Additives are known as bells and whistles. These can range from enhancing the flow and leveling to other additives for mold, mildew, or algae resistance, ceramic microspheres for added durability, flash rust inhibitors, anti-spatter ingredients, etc. While additives make up a very small amount percentage-wise in the total paint can, they can add significantly to the overall cost.
The datasheet of every paint contains details on the volume solids of every paint; however, you don’t always know what is making up the volume solids content. Since the liquid evaporates as the paint dries, the solids adhere and remain on the substrate. For this reason, they are vital in the longevity and performance of the coating. As a rule of thumb, paints with higher volume solids, i.e. 40% vs. 30%, will dry down to a thicker film, have better hide, and provide better protection for the substrate.
That being said, you don’t always know what is making up the solid’s content. Two products can be close in volume solids percentages; however, Product “A” might contain a higher percentage of TiO2 and a quality resin, while product “B” may be comprised of a lot of cheaper filler pigments like clay and an inexpensive resin which then equals apples and oranges.
- Thickening agents: provides “viscosity” or additional thickness so the paint can be applied properly; also allows for better “flow and leveling” and resists a splatter effect when rolling out the paint.
- Surfactants or soaps: provides paint stability so the paint won’t separate; also keeps the pigments dispersed in the liquid to allow for better hiding power and additional assurance for color accuracy
- Biocides: in latex paints, there are two types of biocides used – a preservative to keep bacteria from growing; and a mildewcide to discourage mildew growth
- Defoamers: provide a way to break bubbles as they are formed during the paint manufacturing process, when the paint is shaken at the tint center, and when the paint is applied onto a surface
- Co-solvents: provides additional liquids to the water and can assist the binders in forming a good film when applied in cold temperatures and assists brushing properties, so the paint has time to be used before drying
Pigment in Paints
Pain production involves using chemical substances to create color, providing the color, and hiding characteristics. Typically TiO2 or less expensive extender pigments like clay, talc, or calcium carbonate. There are also Hazardous substances labelled color to paint productions. These chemicals also play a great role in the dyeing Industry. Here are some chemicals that contribute for getting the right color into your wall.
- Titanium Dioxide. (TiO2) a white synthetic inorganic pigment in two crystalline forms as rutile and anatase. Titanium dioxide has a high refractive index. Anatase form is photochemically active but provides a clear white color. Rutile form acts as a protection of paints from degradation by light.
- Anthraquinone. An organic pigment color that is mild in the applicant.
- Benzidine Yellows. The yellow-to-red organic pigments chemicals for interior applications. They are quite resistant in chemicals and stable at elevated temperatures.
- Chrome Oxide Green This chemical is responsible for an olive-green inorganic pigment with a high opacity level. Moreover, Chrome Oxide Green is the most stable green pigment of all the rest.
- Phthalocyanine Blues They provide a broad spectrum of color by using this substance. You can get reddish-blue to yellowish-green. Moreover, The pigments are non-toxic.
- Carbon Black The pigment from organic materials (wood, bones) by having (thermal decomposition in a limited amount of Oxygen).
We can acknowledge now that it takes a combination of chemicals applied and mixed with care for specific purposes to make a paint. The quality of the paint now seriously depends on the quality of its constituent chemicals. That is where the major chemical distributor in Nigeria, whose expertise lies in importing and producing needed quality paints, comes into play.
All stages involve different chemicals and describe several substances that consist of a pigment in liquid or paste vehicles such as oil or water. In many painting applications such as a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint means applying a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone.
contact us if you ever have the interest to further your requirement in paint production in Nigeria